The word apostles stems from the Greek apostellos and stands for to send forth. It refers to the 12 disciples of Christ who were charged with the mission to spread his word throughout the world. There are four biblical sources that give the names of the apostles: Matthew 10: 1-5, Mark 3:16, Luke 6:14, and the Book of Acts 1:13. These men are Peter, his brother Andrew, James, James' brother John, Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus (also called Judas, the brother of James), Simon, and Judas Iscariot. After Judas betrayed Christ, he was replaced by Matthias (Acts 1:21), and later Paul also became part of the group. Of these men, Peter, Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Thaddeus, and Simon were crucified. James was killed by a sword, Matthew by a halberd, and Thomas by a spear. James the son of Alphaeus and Matthias were stoned to death, Paul was beheaded, Judas Iscariot hung himself, and John is believed to have died of natural causes. The Crucifixion of St. Peter was rendered by Michelangelo in the Pauline Chapel at the Vatican (1542-1550) and Caravaggio in the Cerasi Chapel at Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome (1600). St. James Led to His Execution by sword is one of the scenes Andrea Mantegna included in the Ovetari Chapel at the Church of the Eremitani, Padua, in 1454-1457. The calling of the apostles by Christ was also a common subject in art, as Domenico del Ghirlandaio's Calling of Sts. Peter and Andrew in the Sistine Chapel, Rome (1482), and Caravaggio's Calling of St. Matthew in the Contarelli Chapel at San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome (1599-1600), show. The apostles were present at the Last Supper, as depicted by Andrea del Castagno (1447) in the refectory of Sant' Apollonia, and at Pentecost when they began to speak in foreign tongues, as El Greco portrayed them in c. 1608-1610 (Madrid, Prado). The apostles witnessed the Dormition and Assumption of the Virgin, with Hugo van der Goes (c. 1481; Bruges, Groeninge-museum) and Titian (1516-1518; Venice, Santa Maria dei Frari) depicting each scene respectively. Peter, James, and John were present at the Agony in the Garden as Mantegna (mid-1450s) and Giovanni Bellini (c. 1460, both London, National Gallery) represented them. Thomas doubted Christ's Resurrection, so Christ showed him his wounds from the Crucifixion, a scene Verrocchio presented in his sculpture of c. 1465-1483 for one of the niches of Orsanmichele, Florence. Finally, John is the author of the Book of Revelations, the last book in the Bible, which provided much inspiration to artists; for example, Hans Memlinc painted the apocalyptic Vision of St. John on Patmos (1479; Bruges, Hospital of St. John) as one of the side panels to the Altarpiece of the Virgin and Angels.

Historical dictionary of Renaissance art. . 2008.

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  • Apostles —     Apostles     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Apostles     Under this title it may be sufficient to supply brief and essential information,     I. on the name Apostle ;     II. on its various meanings;     III. on the origin of the Apostolate;… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • apostles —    The biblical apostles were the leaders of the first generation of the Christian movement. In more recent times, various Protestant and other religious leaders have claimed the title as well.    The exalted status of the original apostles in… …   Encyclopedia of Protestantism

  • Apostles — Dieser Artikel oder Abschnitt ist nicht hinreichend mit Belegen (Literatur, Webseiten oder Einzelnachweisen) versehen. Die fraglichen Angaben werden daher möglicherweise demnächst gelöscht. Hilf Wikipedia, indem du die Angaben recherchierst und… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • apostles — noun Letters dismissory …   Wiktionary

  • Apostles — n. disciples of Jesus …   English contemporary dictionary

  • apostles — a·pos·tle || É™ pÉ’sl n. one of the 12 disciples of Jesus; missionary of the early Christian church; one who spreads the teachings of Christianity; one who advances an important cause or idea …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Apostles — /əˈpɒsəlz/ (say uh posuhlz) plural noun Bible the, the twelve disciples sent forth by Christ to preach the gospel: Andrew, Bartholomew, John, James the Lesser, James the Greater, Jude, Matthew, Matthias (replacing Judas Iscariot), Peter, Philip,… …   Australian English dictionary

  • apostles — In English admiralty practice, a term borrowed from the civil law, denoting brief dismissory letters granted to a party who appeals from an inferior to a superior court, embodying a statement of the case and a declaration that the record will be… …   Black's law dictionary

  • apostles — Letters granted to an appellant in admiralty stating that the record will be transmitted from the lower court to the higher one; the twelve disciples and other early, valiant, and faithful believers and teachers of Christianity; a preacher or… …   Ballentine's law dictionary

  • APOSTLES — …   Useful english dictionary

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